The transformation, creation, or combination of things, into other things!  Milk into cheese, bamboo into charcoal and other creative techniques used widely in permaculture design

Charcoal, Fire, Lye & Barbecuing

Charcoal has been used to make fires for thousands of years of human history. High temperatures made it useful in the Iron Age. High temperature & lack of smoke when burning, and higher energy density compared to wood, make it very attractive as a fuel for cooking.